Music Therapist Career Description, Salary & Career Outlook - Careers in Music
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Music Therapist

Date: November 4, 2014
Reads: 226,544

Career Overview

A Music Therapist works with clients to improve any issues with their emotional, physical, cognitive and social wellbeing through the use of music lessons, sing-a-longs, etc.

Alternate Titles


Avg. Salary


Salary Range

$33K – $67K1

Career Description

Music Therapists work with everyone from children to elderly Alzheimer’s patients, as well as clients with substance abuse problems, brain injuries, physical disabilities, mental health problems and developmental disabilities.

So, what is music therapy? Trained Music Therapists use musical performance, lessons, songwriting, and music listening as part of an integrative course of therapy to improve the individual client’s social, emotional, physical, and/or cognitive abilities.

They work in a range of settings, from addiction recovery centers to hospices to adult schools to special education programs. They partner with Nurses, Doctors, Counselors, Physical Therapists, Speech Therapists, and Client Service Directors to help the client reach their goals.

To learn more about how to become a Music Therapist, we talked to music therapy professionals:

  • Kalani Das, Director of Golden State Music Therapy
  • Miya Adout, Founder & Executive Director of Miya Music Therapy
  • Rebecca Vaudreuil, Creative Forces®: NEA Military Healing Arts Network

What exactly does a Music Therapist do?

Miya Adout MA, MTA (Founder & Executive Director, Miya Music Therapy)

Certified Music Therapists work with people of all ages and abilities to help them achieve their therapeutic goals. This can include to reduce anxiety, improve social and communication skills, increase self-awareness, and improve specific motor skills. Music Therapists work with people as young as babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, to children with autism spectrum disorder, adults with mental health concerns, and those in end-of-life care.

Rebecca Vaudreuil EdM, MT-BC (National Endowment for the Arts initiative, Creative Forces®: NEA Military Healing Arts Network)

Board-certified Music Therapists use music interventions with patients in individual or group settings to accomplish clinical goals within a therapeutic relationship.

Similar to other healthcare disciplines, music therapy is commonly incorporated into clinical milieus and exists in various treatment settings serving medical, neurological, mental health, educational, developmentally delayed, and palliative populations. Music therapy interventions are used to address motor function, social skills, emotional regulation, coordination, self-expression, and personal growth across the lifespan, from neonates to seniors.

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

There really is no typical day for a Music Therapist. They can work in different locations with different client populations every day, including adult daycares, nursing homes, addiction treatment centers, and daycare schools for the developmentally disabled. Usually, Kalani Das says he does four fifty-minute sessions with a client group of around twenty people per session.

He brings in his musical equipment, including instruments the clients can play, and together they sing a mix of new and familiar songs. Each session is staffed by on-site caregivers, with a ratio of usually around five clients to a caregiver. “You don’t learn a formula and just do it, you’re creating an answer together,” he says about the client/therapist relationship.


Do Music Therapists make good money?

Rebecca Vaudreuil EdM, MT-BC (National Endowment for the Arts initiative, Creative Forces®: NEA Military Healing Arts Network)

According to careersinpsychology.org2, the average salary of a board-certified Music Therapist in the United States is approximately $40,000; however, it can range anywhere between $28,000 and $70,000.

Miya Adout MA, MTA (Founder & Executive Director, Miya Music Therapy)

Yes! Like many professions, there is a range of what you can make depending on experience and level of education. Music Therapists can work as a subcontractor, employee, or start their own private practice, all of which have the potential for high earnings.

Alison Stolpa (Careers in Music Staff)

On average, US Music Therapists earn approximately $44,400 annually. According to Glassdoor, the salary range runs from $33,000 to $67,000.

Most Therapists receive a salary through the organization that employs them. Those in private practice can charge an hourly rate.

Career Outlook

Are Music Therapists in high demand?

Miya Adout MA, MTA (Founder & Executive Director, Miya Music Therapy)

Music Therapists are increasing in demand. This is often the case if you work with certain populations such as seniors living in long-term care facilities. As we are seeing the number of older adults increasing overall in our population, so does the need for valuable services that improve their well-being, such as music therapy.

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

The demand for music therapy practitioners is growing, while at the same time, the budgets of many healthcare facilities are also shrinking. Kalani advises that schools are the fastest growing area for Music Therapists to find employment because “they have more funds, and [therefore] more opportunities.” Positions in hospitals are “secure” and relatively “easier to get,” he says, adding that “older adult facilities are tougher, which is too bad because shut-ins love” when Music Therapists visit.

Rebecca Vaudreuil EdM, MT-BC (National Endowment for the Arts initiative, Creative Forces®: NEA Military Healing Arts Network)

Music Therapists are becoming increasingly recognized for their contributions across medical and healthcare systems (listed above) as well as wellness settings.

Alison Stolpa (Careers in Music Staff)

Career prospects are good for Music Therapists. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics3 projects 7% growth over the course of the decade from 2018 to 2028, which is faster than the average for other professions.

Some of this growth is due in part to the United States’ aging population. Older people can greatly benefit from recreational therapies like music therapy to improve memory function and alleviate other emotional, social, mental, and physical issues.

Career Path

Advancement occurs through experience and further education. Music Therapists who attend graduate-level music therapy degree programs can focus on research and advanced clinical practice, and advance professionally and financially in this way.

They can also move into supervisory positions or university teaching and research roles. Therapists who open a private practice can also charge their own rates, therefore making it possible to earn a higher income.

Employment can be obtained as a result of an internship, responding to job postings or through calling care facilities and checking in with Client Services Directors. In Kalani’s case, he got his first Music Therapy job because someone at an addiction recovery center found his website—so have a good website outlining your credentials, experience, and what makes you special.

What qualifications do you need for music therapy?

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

Music Therapist Kalani says that even after years of performing music professionally on stage, “it was hard, at first” to play music while simultaneously maintaining “extra headroom for the client. Struggling to play a song gives no time for the client, so you have to be super confident in your musical abilities so you can see how the client is reacting.”

He recommends that potential Therapists have a firm knowledge of instruments like guitar, piano, and ukulele and that they work on developing technical skills in drumming and a strong vocal presence.

You must have “a passion for serving people,” says Kalani. “Your number one goal has to be to help people,” with a love for music coming in second. For anyone interested in this career, two essential qualities are “patience and persistence, because it’s hard to become a Music Therapist.”

Kalani adds that you must also have “tenacity, be hard-working, and not be the kind of person who takes things personally” because clients can get frustrated or angry and sometimes are unable to control things like swearing. So, compassion and understanding are also important. “You have to like people, be creative, and be a problem solver,” he says.

Working in music therapy isn’t a way to get paid to play music for a living, Kalani strongly cautions. “It’s not a fallback career. Lots of people don’t make it through [the degree program],” he says. “It’s lots of work, but it’s rewarding. Don’t take it lightly.”

Alison Stolpa (Careers in Music Staff)

You need an undergraduate or master’s degree in Music Therapy. If your degree is in something else, you may be eligible to complete a degree equivalency program without having to get a whole new undergraduate degree.

Students who have taken the requisite coursework must do fieldwork/an internship to get practical experience.

Finally, they must pass a certification exam. A successful exam will lead to getting their Music Therapist-Board Certified (MT-BC) designation. After this, the student becomes a certified Music Therapist and is ready to work!

Experience & Skills

Do you have to play an instrument to be a Music Therapist?

Miya Adout MA, MTA (Founder & Executive Director, Miya Music Therapy)

Yes! To get into any music therapy university program they tend to require experience on guitar, piano, and voice. Many Music Therapists are also trained in other instruments and use them in their clinical work.

Rebecca Vaudreuil EdM, MT-BC (National Endowment for the Arts initiative, Creative Forces®: NEA Military Healing Arts Network)

Music Therapists must achieve proficiency in the core musical areas of voice, guitar, piano, and percussion. In addition, Music Therapists must maintain proficiency on their principal instrument if it differs from the core music proficiencies required for music therapy.

Education & Training

Even the most basic education requirements to become a Music Therapist are hardcore. Aspiring Therapists take courses in music, biology, psychology, physiology, social and behavioral sciences. In the final two years of study, students are required to complete 1200 hours of fieldwork as an intern in a health or education-related setting.

Recreational Therapists must have at least a BA in their field. Those interested in graduate school can obtain an MA degree or a doctoral degree that combines music therapy with related areas of study. Aspiring Therapists who did not major in music for undergraduate can sometimes take equivalency courses before pursuing their MA, depending on the school.

All Music Therapists must pass a certification exam from the American Music Therapy Association and the Certification Board and continue to pass the exam every five years or take recertification credits. Successfully passing the exam will give them the designation of Music Therapist-Board Certified (MT-BC).

What does it take to become a Music Therapist?

Rebecca Vaudreuil EdM, MT-BC (National Endowment for the Arts initiative, Creative Forces®: NEA Military Healing Arts Network)

Music therapy degrees range from bachelor’s level to Ph.D. A Music Therapist is qualified to sit for their board examination, which earns them the board-certified Music Therapist (MT-BC) credential required for practice, after completing a bachelor’s degree. The bachelor’s program takes approximately 4 years, add 2 years to the 4-year bachelor’s degree to earn a Masters, and up to 3-5 additional years for a Ph.D., depending on the plan of study.

Miya Adout MA, MTA (Founder & Executive Director, Miya Music Therapy)

There are a few routes to become a Music Therapist. You can study a 4 year Bachelor’s degree, or take a 1 or 2-year graduate degree in music therapy if you have a strong academic background in music and psychology.

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)
  • ”Work on your musical skills,” Kalani says. “You must be nimble, you must be able to play in a different meter or different key.”
  • “Check out videos on YouTube and do research.” Kalani recommends videos of former Arizona state senator Gabby Giffords working with her Music Therapist.
  • “Get a head start” on reading about psychology, biology, and physiology books, as your education will be filled with similarly challenging coursework.
  • “Learn how to read a study, know the scientific method.”

Additional Resources

The American Music Therapy Association is the nation’s largest professional association, with over 5,000 Music Therapists in its ranks. The AMTA determines training standards for the industry.


What is the single biggest suggestion you would give to someone wanting to get into this career?

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

Try to research and understand what the career is, and have a passion for serving people.

What’s the #1 mistake people make when trying to get into this career?

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

People don’t understand what the career entails. Not doing their research, just filling in the blanks with their own imagination. Read a book, do research, job shadow.

What is the question people should ask about this career but rarely do?

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

Ask “What does a Music Therapist do every day? If I was watching a Music Therapist do their work, what would that look like? What’s going through the Music Therapist’s head when they’re working? What’s informing why they do what they do?” This helps [you] get the big picture, with tools, techniques, and strategies. It’s not just performing.

What is one thing I should have asked which I didn’t?

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

What’s the most rewarding aspect?” Kalani says it’s “seeing evidence that something I’ve done has helped somebody. Seeing clients make progress. Seeing people open up, brighten up, be more social, relax, and get more energy.

If you could describe in one word what makes you successful, what would it be?

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

Flexibility. Musical and interpersonal relationships can be in a state of flux, you have to be able to move.

Extra Credit: The Beatles or Rolling Stones?

Kalani Das MT-BC (Director of Golden State Music Therapy)

The Beatles.

Music Therapist Kalani Das
Kalani Das MT-BC

Kalani Das is a Southern California-based Music Therapist who started his musical career as a performing artist specializing in world music percussion. He was invited to present at a conference for Music Therapists, started teaching them new instrumental skills and shortly afterward was inspired to go back to school for his Music Therapy degree. He specializes in working with clients with addiction, developmental disabilities, traumatic brain injury, and aging-related issues.

As a performer, Kalani Das has toured or recorded with Yanni, Barry Manilow, Kenny Loggins, Chante Moore, and John Mayall. He has written over ten books, including The Way of Music – Creating Sound Connections in Music Therapy, published by Sarsen Publishing (review via Goodreads). He is currently the Director of Programs at Golden State Music Therapy. He has been cited as a resource by Lewy Body Dementia Resource Center and Sound Escape Music Therapy.

Das has been a guest instructor at Chicago’s VanderCook College of Music and taught a masterclass through Imagine. He has performed at Flute Harvest and served as a representative for the Western Region chapter of the American Music Therapy Association.

He has been featured, interviewed, and mentioned by Psychology Today, Sam’s Fans, and the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

Music Therapist Miya Adout
Miya Adout MA, MTA

Miya Adout founded Miya Music Therapy based on her vision to improve patient quality of life in healthcare settings throughout Ontario. Miya is a graduate of Concordia University where she received a Master of Arts in Creative Arts Therapies after having completed a BA in Cultural Studies. Miya works with individuals of all ages and abilities including with parents and infants, adolescents with autism, and seniors living with dementia.

As the MMT slogan states, Miya believes that music therapy is an integral part of every health and wellness team and she is passionate about sharing this through keynote presentations and workshops. Miya also sits on the board of the Music Therapy Association of Ontario, provides business coaching to healthcare entrepreneurs, and has created Connect 2 Music Therapy, an online global magazine for Music Therapists.

When she’s not providing music therapy or business coaching, Miya enjoys playing with her toddler, spending time in nature, and practicing photography!

Music Therapist Rebecca Vaudreuil
Rebecca Vaudreuil EdM, MT-BC

Rebecca Vaudreuil, EdM, MT-BC, MSW Candidate, ’22 is a board-certified Music Therapist who earned a music therapy degree at Berklee College of Music and a master’s in educational neuroscience at Harvard Graduate School of Education. She is currently working on her master’s in social work at Fordham University. She holds additional certifications in the specialty areas of neurologic music therapy, neonatal intensive care music therapy, and music therapy assisted child birthing.

In 2010, she founded a model for music therapy programming that was replicated on multiple military installations in Southern California. Since 2014, Rebecca works for a national initiative that develops music therapy best practices for military populations. She provides clinical and research mentorship, supports increased access to creative arts therapies research across military and veteran healthcare systems, and promotes arts-based partnerships in clinical and community settings across the United States.

Her work has been published in both arts-based and rehabilitation peer-reviewed journals and featured by CNN, ABC’s World News Tonight, PBS as part of the Memorial Day Capital Concerts (2017, 2020), and in a White House Blog. Rebecca is a featured Lecturer at various national and international symposiums, conferences, and universities and works annually with the Jamaica Field Service Project to supervise music therapy in special education Schools of Hope, hospitals, infirmaries, and homeless shelters in rural areas across Jamaica.

  1. 1. "Music Therapist Salaries in United States". published: Dec 12, 2020. retrieved on: December 17, 2020
  2. 2Careers in Psychology. "Employment Outlook & Career Guidance for Musical Therapists". Careers in Psychology. published: . retrieved on: 21 July 2020
  3. 3US Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Recreational Therapists". Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections. published: 10 April 2020. retrieved on: 19 June 2020
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